Toy Makers


    Toy Companies  A - J

     

     

    Acme Toy Works Chicago, Illinois 
    1903-1907 
    Founder: Jacob Lauth 
    Specialty: Clockwork toy autos.

    All-NU Products Inc. New York City, New York 
    1938-1945 
    Other name: Faben Products Inc. 
    Founder: C. Frank Krupp 
    Specialty: Military Miniatures. Krupp designed and fabricated Barclay`s tin helmet line of soldiers, then left to start his own company. He declared bankruptcy in 1945, but was back in business a year later.

    Alps (Shojo Ltd.) Tokyo, Japan 
    1948 to date 
    Specialty: Toy vehicles and novelties. A lot of these toys were battery operated; mixed tinplate and tin. Space toys are among the most popular.

    Althof, Bergmann New York City, New York 
    1867-1880 
    Founder: Three Bergmann brothers and the jobber, L. Althof. 
    Specialty: Tinplate trains, bell toys, still banks, horse drawn vehicle. One of the first U.S. toy makers to build carpet running trains, renowned for painted clockwork toys, notably the hoop variety.

    American Flyer Chicago, Illinois 
    1907-1938 
    Acquired by A.C. Gilbert 
    Specialty: Electric train engines and rolling stock. Also produced a popular line of comic figures on bicycle gravity toys, including Charlie Chaplin, Uncle Sam, Roosevelt Bears (Circa 1912). A.C. Gilbert revitalized the ailing American Flyer line; following the second world war , it moved to "S" gauge models, retaining the American Flyer name..

    American National Co. Toledo, Ohio 
    Early 1900s to ? 
    Trade name: Giant 
    Slogan: "Raise the Kids on Wheels" 
    Founder: Walter, Harry, and William Diemer 
    Specialty: Scooters, bicycles. Produced sidewalk toys including pressed-steel trucks, competing briefly with Keystone and Buddy "L" in the late 1920s.

    Andes Foundry Co. Lancaster, Pennsylvania 
    1919 - 1930s 
    Other names: Merged with Kilgore and Federal Mfg. In 1927, and became American Toys. 
    Founder: Eugene Andes 
    Specialty: Paper caps and components, airplanes, trucks. First made paper caps and cast iron components for Kilgore cap guns and cannons. Merged with Kilgore and Federal Mfg. In 1927 and became American Toys until the company dissolved a few years later. Specialized in Arctic ice cream wagons, airplanes, stake and dump trucks..

    Arcade Mfg. Co. Freeport, Illinois 
    1868 - 1946 
    Founder: E.H. and Charles Morgan 
    Specialty: First made toys and coffee mills in 1884. As late as 1939, Arcade`s toy line included over 300 toy items. Yellow Cab was their first successful toy. Andy Gump in 348 and Chester Gump in His Pony Cart were other popular toys for collectors. Arcade also made toy banks, doll house furniture, and cast-iron penny toys.

    Arnold Co. Nuremberg, Germany 
    1906 to date 
    Founder: K. Arnold 
    Specialty: Stationary steam accessories; nautical toys. Introduced "Rapido" gauge "N" model railroads in 1960s.

    Auburn Auburn, Indiana 
    1913 - 1968 
    Other name: Double Fabric Tire Corp. 
    Specialty: English Palace Guards toy soldiers and military miniatures. Made English Palace Guards toy soldiers, as well as miniatures for the European and American branches of the military service. Also made a number of animal and wheeled vehicle toys. Toy division moved to Deming, New Mexico..

    Automatic Toy Works New York City, New York 
    1868 - 1874 
    Founder: Robert J. Clay 
    Clockwork tin toys 
    Girl Skipping Rope, Toy Gymnast, Creeping Baby were precursors of all Ives articulated dancing platform toys. Bought out by Ives in 1874.

    Barclay Mfg. Co. Hoboken, New Jersey 
    1923 - 1971 
    Founder: Leon Donze, a Frenchman, and Michael Levy 
    Toy soldiers 
    Introduced a line of toy soldiers in 1932; became the largest U.S. producer of toy soldiers up to World War II.

    Barton & Smith Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
    1890s - ? 
    Founder: J.Barton 
    Mechanical Banks 
    Made cast-iron mechanical banks, including "Boy on Trapeze".

    Bassett-Lowke Northampton, England 
    1899 to date 
    Founder: Wenman J. Bassett-Lowke 
    Innovated mail-order catalog of toys concept. 
    The first to recognize the quality workmanship of German toy train manufactures (i.e. Bing, Maerklin, Carette, and Ismayer) and to commission specific British designs. Bassett-Lowke also innovated the mail order catalog of toys concept, mailing its first edition, with tipped-in photographs, in 1899.

    Bing Corp. New York City, New York 
    1924 - 1935 
    Founder: John Bing 
    Spin-off of German firm, Gebruder Bing. 
    Served as jobber for parent firm with mechanical boats, zeppelins, and steam engines.

    Gebbruder Bing Nuremberg, Germany 
    1866 - 1933 
    Karl Bub; toy trains/Fleischmann; toy boats 
    Founder: Brothers Ignatius and Adolph Bing 
    Spring-driven toys 
    Wide-range of spring-driven, cars, buses ,boats. Perhaps its biggest coup was a line of trains initiated in 1882. Bing went under during the crash of 1929; Karl Bub acquired the toy trains division and Fleischmann the toy boats.

    R. Bliss Mfg. Co. Pawtucket, Rhode Island 
    1832 - 1914 
    Sold to Mason & Parker, Winchendon, Massachusetts. 
    Founder: Rufus Bliss 
    They were in the toy business for 100 years. 
    Bliss had over a one hundred-year history, although the earliest ad for toys appeared in the New England Business Directory in 1871. Pioneered in development of lithographed paper on wooden toys including dolls` houses, boats, trains, and building blocks.

    Blomer & Schuler Nuremberg, Germany 
    1930 to date 
    Tin mechanical motor toys. 
    Logo features an elephant with howdah..

    George Borgfeldt & Co. New York City, New York 
    1881 - 1962 
    Founder: George Borgfeldt, and Marcell and Joseph Kahle. 
    Importer and wholesaler of toys. 
    Toys which included comic novelty tin wind-ups under the name "Nifty." Trademark was "Nifty" smiling moon face. Also distributed "Oh Boy" pressed steel trucks and cars.

    James H. Bowen Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
    1877-1906 
    Founder: James H. Bowen 
    Pattern maker for J. & E. Stevens mechanical banks. 
    Designed such classics as "Darktown Battery", "Girl Skipping Rope", "Reclining Chinaman.

    Bowman Norwich, England 
    1920s - 1935 
    Steam-driven locomotives and rolling stock.

    Milton Bradley & Co. Springfield, Massachusetts 
    1861 to date 
    Variously identified as Milton Bradley Co., Milton Bradley & Co., Milton Bradley and company. 
    Founder: Milton Bradley 
    Board games. 
    Launched his business with "The Checkered Game of Life", a board game of high moral overtones. Milton Bradley also became well known for educational games, books, kindergarten teaching aids, and school supplies, as well as a small range of toys.

    William Britains Ltd. London, England 
    1893 to date 
    Founder: William Britain 
    Three dimensional hollow toy soldier, largest producer of toy soldiers 
    Introduced a three dimensional hollow toy soldier line, faithfully replicating over 100 British Army regiments in their first decade of doing business. Britains expanded to become the world`s largest producer of lead toy soldiers. (Since 1966, alas, the figures have been made of plastic..

    George W. Brown & Co. Forestville, Connecticut 
    1856 - 1880 
    Merged with J. & E. Stevens in 1868 
    Founder: George W. Brown and Chauncey Goodrich 
    First manufacturer to produce toys with clock-work mechanisms. 
    Beginning perhaps as early as 1850. Known for classic boats, vehicles, animal platforms toys, dancing figures, and hoop bell toy, fashioned in painted tin.

    Karl Bub Nuremberg, Germany 
    1851 - 1966 
    Founder: Karl Bub 
    Enameled tin transportation toys, 
    Superbly enameled and later lithographed line of clockwork tin transportation toys including trains. Many Bub toys reached the American market via exclusive distributor F.A.O. Schwartz, New York City, during the 1920s-1930s.

    Buddy L Salem, Massachusetts 
    1910 to date 
    Other names: Moline Press Steel(1910-1913); Buddy L Wood Products(1944); Buddy L Manufacturing (1930); Buddy L Corp.(to date). 
    Founder: Fred Lundahl 
    Cranes, steamrollers, trucks, construction toys. 
    Buddy L toys were named after the founder`s son. Lundahl introduced the line in 1921, starting with a pressed steel pick-up truck that expanded into a veritable fleet of almost 30 cranes and other construction toys some five years later.

    Buffalo Toy & Tool Works Buffalo, New York 
    1924 - 1968 
    Lightweight pressed-steel aeronautical, automotive, and carousel toys. 
    Many of the toys were activated by a special spiral rod connected to a spring.

    Burnett Ltd. London, England 
    1920s - 1930s 
    Painted and lithographed tin clockwork vehicles, including London autobuses.

    Butler Brothers New York City, New York 
    1876 - 1950s 
    Largest wholesale distributors of toys in the U.S. during the first quarter of the 20th century. 
    Carried the most elite lines. Sold by catalog exclusively to merchants, with sample houses in most major cities.

    Cardini Omegna, Italy 
    1922 - 1928 
    Five main lines of small toy automobiles 
    Cardini`s innovative packaging included outer box that could be transformed into the cars garage. Toys were marked by a large Cardini crest and the tires were marked Pirelli-cord.

    George Carette Nuremberg, Germany 
    1886 - 1917 
    Founder: George Carette (with Gebrudern Bing`s backing). 
    Mechanical tin boats, cars, and trains. 
    Many of these toys were lithographed. Best known for electric streetcars and model trains. Carette, as a French citizen, was deported from Germany in 1917, thus closing the firm.

    Carlisle & French Co. Cincinnati, Ohio 
    1895 - 1915 (for toy line) 
    Founder: Robert Finch and Morton Carlisle 
    First successful electric train 
    Produced the first successful electrically run toy train in the United States in 1879. Later expanded line included steam outline locomotives and rolling stock. Also functioned a distributor, handling the first toy automobile. ( made by Knapp Electric in 1900).

    Francis W. Carpenter Port Chester, New York 
    1880 - 1890 
    Sold patent rights and inventory to Pratt & Letchworth 
    Cast-iron, horse-drawn vehicles. 
    These Toys included what many collectors view as the creme de la creme, the tally-ho.

    Champion Hardware Co. Geneva, Ohio 
    1883 - 1954 (toys from 1930-1936) 
    Founder: John and Ezra Hasenpflug 
    Champion Hardware made cast iron transportation toys, banks and cap pistols. They also made cast iron parts for other leading toy manufacturers. (Thanks to Mark Schupska for information provided.)

    J. Chein & Co. New York City, New York and Harrison, New Jersey. 
    1903 - 1979 (toy producing years) 
    Other names: Became known as Chein Industries, Inc., in the 1970s. 
    Founder: Julius Chein 
    Specialty: tin mechanical toys, banks, drums, and tea sets. 
    Tin toys were lithographed. Chein`s line of comic and circus tin toys received wide acceptance in the 1930s and leading up to World War II. .

    D.P. Clark Dayton, Ohio 
    1898 - 1909 
    Other names: Re-named Schieble Toy & Novelty in 1909 
    Founder: David P. Clark 
    Specialty: Sheet-steel novelty and automotive toys with friction and flywheel mechanisms.

    Clark & Sowdon New York City, New York 
    Early 1890s - 1910 
    Specialty: Board games 
    Board games such as "Rough Riders", "Game of Golf", and "Yacht Race"..

    E.O. Clark New York City, New York 
    1897 - early 1900s 
    Founder: E.O. Clark (Successor to Clark & Sowdon). 
    Specialty: Board games. 
    Board games, including "The Charge", "The Hippodrome", and "The Owl & The Pussycat."

    Morton E. Converse Co. Winchenden, Massachusetts 
    1878 - 1934 (Mason & Converse until 1883) 
    Founder: Morton Converse 
    Specialty: Toytown Complex 
    "Toytown Complex" was once recognized as the largest wood toy factory in the world. Known for Noah`s arcs, ABC blocks, and doll furniture, many of which were lithographs on wood. Made steel toys in the 1890s, comprised mainly of transportation vehicles with clockwork mechanisms.

    Corcoran Mfg. Co. Washington, Indiana 
    1920s - 1940s 
    Specialty: Large, pressed-steel riding toy autos and trains under the trademark "Cor-Cor".

    Corgi Toys, Mettoy Playcraft Ltd. Swansea, South Wales 
    Since 1956 (Mettoy Playcraft Ltd. Originated in 1934) 
    Specialty: Miniature toy vehicles in metal and plastic.

    Courtenay Miniatures (an extension of a Doran toy makers which dates back to 1892) Duran, England 
    1938 - 1963 
    Founder: Richard and Vida Courtenay
    Specialty: very limited production of lead royalty figures including Knights of the Round Table. Frederick Ping with Courtenay made many of his own medieval figures.Courtenay chose Ping to take over his molds upon his death (1963). Ping was one of the most incredible makers of 54mm figures, working in the French style of building each figure from layers of lead, on a simple lead figure. Ping kept the molds from 1963, until Peter Greenhill purchased the Courtenay molds in 1978 and continues to market miniatures under Courtenay and Greenhill. (Credit for this information goes to Glenn)

    Charles M. Crandall Covington, Pennsylvania 
    1867-1905 
    Specialty: Inter-locking tongue and groove lithograph paper-on-wood joints. 
    Interlocking tongue in groove wooden joints that children used to create multiple figure forms. Some of the more popular sets; "District School House", "Acrobats", and "Treasure Box". Charles` son Jesse started his own toy business soon after the Civil War, relocating in Brooklyn. Jesse Crandall was issued a number of patents for rocking toys, alphabet blocks, and construction toys. Relocated to Montrose, Pennsylvania in 1875, to Waverly, New York in 1888.

    Jesse Crandall Brooklyn, New York 
    1840s - 1880s 
    Specialty: Hobby horses, rocking horses, velocipedes, and board games.

    Crescent Toy Co., Ltd. Great Britain 
    1921-late 1970s 
    Specialty: Hollow cast lead soldiers and plastic figures, including "Dan Dare, Pilot of the Future"; also made die-cast motor miniatures.

    A. A. Davis Nashua, New Hampshire 
    1860 - ? 
    Specialty: Novelty toys featuring small lithographed figures of celebrities, animals, butterflies with moveable parts set I wooden cups, covered by glass ( i.e., "Magic Major General Grant"; see "Political" listing.)

    Dayton Friction Toy Works Dayton, Ohio 
    1909-1935 
    SON-NY 
    Founder: D.P. Clark (see D.P. Clark) D.P. Clark was the predecessor of the Dayton Friction 
    Specialty: Pressed Steel friction toys with patented horizontal flywheel. 
    Patented horizontal flywheel (1926) under trade name "Gyro"; maker of child-size, up to 24 inches long.

    Dayton Toy & Specialty Co. (SON-NY) Dayton, Ohio 
    1920s - early 1930s 
    Founder: Dick Cummings 
    Specialty: Large, heavy-gauge, pressed-steel transportation toys. They made the Son-ny line of medal toys.

    Dent Hardware Co. Fullerton, Pennsylvania 
    1895-1937 ( continued to manufacture cold storage hardware until 1937). 
    Founder: Henry H. Dent, with four additional partners 
    Specialty: Cast-iron and aluminum transportation toys and banks. "Pioneer" fire truck, Ford Tri-Motor, and large hook-and-ladder toys were popular items.

    Johann Distler Nuremberg,, Germany 
    1900 - 1968 

    In 1917, Distler brought in Messrs, Brown & Mayer as partners. After Distler`s death in 1923, his partners took over the business. Brown & Mayer sold out to Ernst Volk in 1935. From 1939 until the end of WWII, many toy factories stopped production and were converted to help manufacture goods for the war effort. Therefore, Distler toys did not make anything except aircraft and auto parts. Then from 1962-1968, a Belgian firm assumed the toy business.

     

    Specialty: Lithographed tin penny toys; comic and erratic action transportation toys.

     

    Doll Et Cte (& C0.) Nuremberg, Germany 
    1868-Post-World War II 
    Founder: Peter Doll and J Sondheim. Firm was taken over by Fleischmann in1938 but the name was retained until 1948. 
    Specialty: Steam engines and accessories; novelty trains and cars, some of which were steam propelled. Trademark based on the initials D.C..

    Dowst (Tootsietoy) Chicago, Illinois 
    Late 1890s 
    Founder: Charles O. and Samuel Dowst 
    Specialty: Miniature cast-metal cars, trains, and planes. Tootsietoy name introduced in 1922 when Dowst introduced a line of doll furniture (named after a Dowst granddaughter, Toots). Merged with Cosmo Mfg. 1926; acquired Strombeck-Becker toy line in 1961 and made a name change as Strombecker Corp.

    Hans Eberl Nuremberg, Germany 
    1900 to late 1920s 
    Founder: Hans Eberl 
    Specialty: Automotive toys bearing the initials H.E.N.; Borgfeldt was a factory agent for Eberl.

    Edmund`s Traditional Toy Soldiers 1950s - ? 
    Founder: Edmund Fangonilo 
    Specialty: Confederate Regiment replicas in limited editions of 100 sets, created by the artist, Fangonilo.

    EFFanBEE New York City, New York 
    1910 to date 
    Founder: Fleischaker and Baum ( from which the trade name derives). 
    Specialty: Early on, EFFanBEE specialized in bisque, cloth, and composition baby and toddler dolls, with slogan: "They Walk, They Talk, They Sleep." Later the firm made a number of celebrity puppets and ventriloquists` dolls, including Charlie McCarthy, W.C. Fields, and Howdy Doody.

    Gebruder Einfalt Nuremberg, Germany 
    1922 to date 
    "Technofix" 
    Founder: Georg and Johann Einfalt 
    Specialty: Oversized penny toys; comic and erratic action tin wind-ups. Prior to 1930s, toys can be identified by the initials "G.E" or "G.E.N.". Assumed the mark "Technofix" after 1935.

    Ellis, Britton & Eaton Springfield, Vermont 
    1859- early 1900s 
    Founder: Joel Ellis 
    Specialty: Wooden dolls, sleds, pianos, rolling hoops, and toy carriages. 
    In 1873, Ellis patented his most popular toy, the Jointed Wood Doll, made of maple with cast-iron hands and feet. Two nearby firms, Cooperative Mfg. And Vermont Novelty works, continued the patent.

    Toy Corporation (Emmets Dollar Trucks) New York, New York 
    1929 - 1932 
    Founder: Louis Emmets 
    Specialty: Emmets` toy line, like the lightweight metal toys of Chein and Kiddies, featured toy trucks made of 20-gauge steel. These trucks averaged 22-inches in length and 7-1/2 inches in height. All trucks were equipped with solid rubber tires, marked "Emmets", in bas-relief. Characteristics of Emmets` toys were the large, non-functioning steering wheel and the "modified C` closed cab. All Emmets` trucks had a decal positioned on only the left side of the truck`s cab or service bed. The decal identified the toy as a product of the Emmets Toy Corporation, as well as indicating the toy`s production. Emmets Dollar Trucks, as they were known, were on the market for a relatively short time, thought to be about 3 years at most. Therefore, the trucks are considered to be hard to find. Advertising by the Emmerts Corporation ceased in 1932 and the company`s status after that remains unknown.

    Enterprise Manufacturing Co. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
    1876 - 1888 
    Specialty: Hardware manufacturer specializing in coffee grinders, turned out a series of still banks commemorating the U.S. Centennial Exposition held in that city (i.e., Independence Hall Globe Bank). Also produced such mechanical banks as Elephant with pop-out man and Memorial Money Bank (Liberty Bell).

    J. Falk Nuremberg, Germany 
    Late 1890s - 1940 
    Founder: J. Falk 
    Specialty: Stationary steam engines, optical projectors, and steam-propelled boats.

    James Fallows & Sons Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
    1870 to ? 
    Organized under name "C.B. Porter Company. In 1894, name was changed to Frederick & Henry Fallows Toys. 
    Firm began carrying his name about 1880. Principals were James Fallows and his sons, Henry, Charles, and David. 
    Specialty: Painted and stenciled tin horse-drawn, wheeled vehicles, trains, and river boats. Highly prized toys often carried marl "IXL", said to be based on word-play "I Excell". (Some feel that it signifies the date of Fallows` arrival in Philadelphia from the old country.) Fallows` demise coincided with the advent of lithographed tin toys in the 1880s.

    Farnell`s -Alpha Toys - Made in England
    1840 
    The firm of J.K. Farnell was founded in 1840 in Notting Hill, London, England, initially making Pincushions. They then began making soft toys. When the founder, John, died in 1897, his children, Agnes & Henry, moved to Acton in East London where they started to produce soft toys, including high quality plush teddy bears. In 1925 they registered the Alpha trademark. The quality of their toys was consistently high. Some of their Alpha toys, especially their children, rival in beauty and quality those made by Lenci in Italy. Among the dolls, they produced a series of musical dolls and a number of beautifully painted children dressed in high quality clothing and reminiscent of Kate Greenaway. Most Farnell dolls date back to the 1930`s In 1935 the trademarks Alpha Cherub Dolls and Joy Day were registered.

    - Information provided by Gwen Browne Surrey, B.C. Canada

    Georg Fischer Nuremberg, Germany 
    Early 1900s - 1914 
    Specialty: Tin penny toys and other novelties. Trademark "G.F".

    Fisher Price Toys East Aurora, New York 
    1930 to date 
    Founders: Irving L. Price, Herman G. Fisher, and Helen M. Schelle. Herman Fisher, who was the first president, resigned in 1966 and was succeeded by Henry H. Coords. Quaker Oats Company acquired the firm in 1969. 
    Specialty: Lithographed paper applied over wooden and plastic pull toys, including the early Doctor Doodle, Lookee Monk, Dizzy Dino, and Woodsy-Wee toys. Mickey Mouse, Donald, Goofy, Snow White, and scores of other Disney characters were featured in the 1930s and 1940s. To date Fisher Price, any toy featuring the vertical white reverse out of black logo predates 1962; any item containing any or all plastic parts was made after 1949.

    Gebruder Fleischmann Nuremberg, Germany 
    1887 to date 
    Founder: J. Fleischmann 
    Specialty: Quality tinplate boats in the 1920s, as well as automotive replicas. Took over Doll et Cie just before WW II and has concentrated on model railroads to this day.

    Gendron Wheel Company Toledo, Ohio 
    1872 to 1941 
    Founder: Pierre Gendron 
    Specialty: In 1872, Pierre Gendron made the first "Pioneer" vehicle in a small workshop in his home near Toledo, Ohio. The company was originally organized with the purpose of manufacturing wire wheels. By 1920, in addition to wire wheels, Gendron was making baby carriages, tot`s push cabs, and doll vehicles. With the increasing popularity of bicycle riding, Gendron manufactured a complete line of bikes. In 1928, Gendron Wheel Company, now recognized as one of the leaders in juvenile pedal vehicles, added pressed-steel toy trucks to their "Pioneer" line" of toys, utilizing the trade name of "Sampson". Sampson trucks are easily distinguished from American`s Giant and Toledo Metal Wheel`s Bull Dog trucks by the unique shape of its redesigned hood and radiator. The hood was designed to follow a more conventional radiator shape than the previous Mack profile radiator used by the other manufacturers. Sampson`s near rectangular decal, with the word "Sampson", is affixed to the sides of the various service beds and a small Sampson decal is located at the top of the radiator. All trucks, except the low end items, came equipped with hand-cranked noisemakers. In all likelihood, the American-National Company, after sharing the tooling for the trucks with Toledo Metal Wheel, sold the same tooling to Gendron in 1928. Gendron revised the design of the hood and radiator of the truck to give it a Gendron personality and continued to manufacture Sampson trucks until about 1930 or 1931.In all probability, Gendron`s "Sampson" steel trucks and airplanes were victims of the depression. Gendron continued to produce juvenile pedal toys and outdoor gym equipment until the outbreak of WWII.

    Gibbs Mfg. Co. Canton, Ohio 
    1884 to date 
    Founder: Lewis E. Gibbs 
    Specialty: Originally manufactured plows. Added toys in 1886. Mechanical spinning tops, wagons, and lithographed paper-on-wood, metal, and advertising toys.

    A.C. Gilbert Co. New Haven, Connecticut 
    1908 - 1966 
    Founder: Albert C. Gilbert 
    Specialty: Began as a manufacturer of boxed magic sets. Introduced Erector Sets in 1913, an instant success( 30 million will be sold over the next 40 years). Bought out Richter Anchor Block, an American affiliate of Meccano, at the beginning of WWI. Pressed-steel autos and trucks were added to the line in 1914, plus a variety of scientific toys. Purchased American Flyer in 1938 and retained only the name for a line of trains. Gilbert subsequently had financial woes of its own and the toy train line was sold to Lionel in 1966.

    Girard Model Works, Inc. Girard, Pennsylvania 
    1919-1922 
    Other names: Girard Mfg. Co. 1922-1935; The Toy Works, 1935-1975(Spinning tops, skates, banks, trains, military toys). 
    Founder: Frank E. Wood 
    Specialty: In the late 1920s, Girard made Louis Marx a commission agent and for several years produced toys under the Marx label, along with its own line of steel autos, trucks, and trains, which were produced at Girard Motor Works. Marx and Girard toys are for all intents indistinguishable ( a few of the Girard toys bore the slogan "Making Childhood`s Hour Happier"). Girard declared bankruptcy in 1934, although toy production continued until 1975. Quaker Oats had bought out Marx`s interest in Girard when they bought Marx`s American and English toy division 1972.

    Gong Bell Mfg. Co., East Hampton, Connecticut 
    1886-late 1930s 
    Specialty: Hardware bells and cast-metal bell pull and push toys.

    Greppert & Kelch Brandenberg, Germany 
    1912 - 1930 
    Founder: Gundka, G.&K. 
    Specialty: Small lithographed tin mechanical toys; mid-1920s appears to have been the height of their popularity. Often marked "Gundka Werke", or with G.&K.

    Grey Iron Co. Mount Joy, Pennsylvania 
    Other names: 1900 ( Under name Brady Machine Shop) to date. First produced toys in 1903). 
    Specialty: Grey Klip Army toy soldiers (1917-1941) in cast iron, nickel-plated. "Iron Men" series, 1936; "Uncle Sam`s Defender", 1938. The firm produced miniatures under the name "Greyklip Armies"; also an "American Family" series just prior to WWII. Still operating today as John Wright division of Cons Co.

    S.G. Gunthermann Nuremberg, Germany 
    1877 - 1965 
    Founder: Sifried Gunthermann 
    Specialty: Began producing tinplate mechanical cars in 1898; also a number of comic and character wind-ups in the early 1960s. When founder died in 1890, his widow married Adolph Weigel; toys from that period on bore makers mark with a shield inside circle and initials A.S.G.W. Wiegels initials were removed following his death in 1919. Company was acquired by Siemens in 1965.

    Gutmann Paris, France 
    1945 to date 
    Specialty: Lightweight tin motor vehicles. Trademark: MEMO

    Hafner Mfg. Co. Chicago, Illinois 
    1900 to 1950 
    Founder: W.F. Hafner 
    Specialty: Joined with Edmunds-Metzel Co. in 1907 to manufacture trains and mechanical toys. Became American Flyer Manufacturing in 1910 and was sold to Wyandotte in 1950. When Wyandotte closed its doors, Marx acquired Hafner dies.

    John Harper & Co., Ltd. Willenhall, England 
    1790 - 1940 
    Founder: John Harper 
    Specialty: Produced banks in the 1880s. Cast-iron still/mechanical banks and toys. Noted banks include; "Wimbleton Bank", "Grenadier", "I Always Did Despise a Mule", "Football Bank", and "Giant on Tower".

    Harris Toy Co. Toledo, Ohio 
    1887 - 1913 
    Specialty: Produced cast-iron toys in the 1880s. Harris also acted as jobber for Dent, Hubley, and Wilkins. Financial difficulties forced them out of toy production by 1913.

    Hasbro Mfg. Pawtucket, Rhode Island 
    1923 to date 
    Founder: The Hassenfeld brothers 
    Specialty: Makers of plastic and wood toys, including Super Weeble, Potato Head, and G.I. Joe series, which has gone through several transformations. The articulated plastic figures in cloth uniforms were originally 11 1/2 inches tall; the new G.I. Joe`s, recalled to active duty in 1982, measured a mere 14 inches. In 1987, G.I.Joe was the number one selling toy in America.

    O. & M. Hausser Stuttgart (Ludwigsburg), Germany 
    1904 - 1983 
    Founder: Otto and Max Hausser 
    Specialty: Dolls, toys, and military miniatures of composition sawdust and glue, made under the name "Elastolin". Also made still banks from 1929-1939.

    J.L. Hess Nuremberg, Germany 
    1826-mid-1930`s 
    Specialty: Tinplate pull-along trains and various other parlor toys; toys autos that bore the trademark name "Hessmobil".

    Heyde Miniatures Dresden, Germany 
    1872 - 1945 
    Specialty: Full-round solid military miniatures. Decidedly topical, Heyde produced new sets of replications of soldiers whenever a war broke out, in a variety of sizes from 40 to 145mm. Highly prized are the special sets(i.e., "Buffalo Bill", "North Pole Expedition", "Tiger Hunting in India"). Heyde`s factory was wiped out by Dresden firebombing in 1945. Heydes usually bear no trademarks, but can be distinguished by their highly stylized, thin and fragile appearance.

    N.N. Hill Brass Co. New Jersey 
    1889 - 1960 
    Specialty: Branch of National Novelty for four years ending in 1907. Merged with Watrous Mfg. Co. in 1905, another bell toy maker. Specialized in cast-iron and pressed-steel bell push and pull toys, toy telephones, and target games.

    Johann Gottfried Hilpert Nuremberg, Germany 
    1770s - 1801 
    Founders: Johann Hilpert, Johann Georg , Johann Wolfgang Hilpert. 
    Specialty: The firm was the first identified manufacturer of tin soldiers. In addition to military (Frederick the Great`s Potsdam Guards are a stunning example), Hilpert also produced a variety of flat figures depicting hunting, farming, and theatrical life. Identifying marks "H", "JH", "JGH", or "Hilpert" on base. Figures were often dated.

    Hoge Mfg. Co. (pronounced Hoagy) Manhattan, NY. 
    Founded in 1909 
    Specialty: Founded in 1909 in Manhattan, NY, by Hampden Hoge, who had left the company by 1919. They produced only office supplies until 1931, when Henry Katz dissolved his company and came to manage Hoge`s new toy division. The firm contracted construction of their toy designs to Mattatuck Manufacturing Company. Products included stamped steel passenger and animated circus cars as well as electric and clockwork locomotives. The line ceased in 1939 and Hoge was bought and dissolved by Mattatuck in 1958. The name is currently the property of Robert Hoge (no direct relation to the founder), a Hoge collector.

    Hubley Mfg. Co. Lancaster, Pennsylvania 
    1894 to date 
    Slogan: "They`re Different" 
    Founder: John E. Hubley 
    Specialty: Brand name: Lancaster Brand Iron Toys. Originally manufactured electric toy train equipment and parts. Purchased Safety Buggy Co. factory and moved to site in 1909. First manufactured cast-iron toys, horse-drawn wagons and fire engines, circus trains, and cap guns. Toy autos became the headliners in 1930s. By quickly converting to cheaper smaller toys during the Depression, they avoided financial woes experienced by many other toy companies. Iron shortages in WWII and commitments to fill war contracts did stop the toy division in 1942, until after the war.. The name was later changed to Gabriel Industries and still existed as a division of CBS as of 1978.

    Hull & Stafford Clinton, Connecticut 
    1860s - 1880s (Established as Hull & Wright; acquired Union Mfg. Co. in 1869.) 
    Specialty: Intricate, enameled tin toys.

    Ideal Brooklyn, New York 
    1903 to date 
    Founder: Rose and Morris Michtom 
    Specialty: Stuffed toys and dolls, anchored by the original Teddy Bear. Ideal still ranks as one of the top producers of stuffed toys and dolls.

    Industria Nazionale Giocattoli Automatica Padova, Padua, Italy 
    1920 - ? 
    Specialty: Tin mechanical trains, cars, airplanes. Trademark: INGAP.

    Ives Corp. Bridgeport, Connecticut 
    1868 - 1932 
    E.R. Ives & Co. 
    Plymouth, Connecticut 
    1868 - 1870 
    Founder: Edward R. Ives 
    Specialty: Originally made baskets and hot air toys. 
    Ives and Blakeslee & Co.  1872 - 1932 Specialty: Ives joined partner Cornelius Blakeslee, a brother-in-law. Ives moved to Bridgeport in 1870; by the 1880s, they were leaders in superb clockwork toys designed by Jerome Secor, Nathan Warner, and Arthur Hotchkiss. Ives also acted as jobber for other toy manufactures` toys. The firm filed for bankruptcy in 1929, another victim of the Depression. Lionel took over the company at that time, and the name Ives and Blakeslee remained until 1931.

    Jacrim Manufacturing Co. Seaworthy Boats 
    The JACRIM Manufacturing Company was the brain child of Chester Rimmer and Arthur Jackson two graduates of MIT in 1921 in Navel Architecture and Marine Engineering. The Boston City Directory said the company began in 1921, but the first official registration was in 1924 in Malden, Mass as Jacrim Manufacturing. There is no record of Seaworthy Boats and it probably was a trade name. Chester was the treasurer and his brothers, coopers by trade, were the other officers. No mention of Jackson. The boats were mostly hand crafted and about 1930 they moved to Boston into The Keystone Manufacturing factory, Advertisements were published and a 1932 price list was issued. Then Keystone took over and all the Rimmers except Chester left the company. Jackson left to join American Enka in May of 1929. Keystone offered Jacrim Boats through the 1930`s and by the war years boats were only marked Keystone. Also the hand shaped boats gave way to machine cut and many of the Seaworthy features were eliminated. The first boats were sailboats from 12" to 36" and then spring motor driven motorboats called "Flying Yankee" from 19" to 30" , Electric Battery speed boats and in 1929 the "Tom Thumb" boats appeared. There were "Ride Em" wooden wagons, Forts and other toys and probably some still hiding in closets and attics waiting to be discovered. Keystone continued until 1957 and Chester Rimmer, a vice president, retired. (Information provided by Robert S. Jones 2008)

    Jeanette Toy & Novelty Co. Jeanette, Pennsylvania 
    1898 - ? 
    Specialty: Lithographed tin toys, including trays, tea sets, and figural glass candy containers.

    JEP (Jouets en Paris) Paris, France 
    1899 - 1965 
    Known originally as the Societe Industriel de Ferblanteriel, the firm underwent a name change to J de P in 1928; its contemporary came about in 1932. 
    Specialty: Lithographed, tin, clockwork toy automobiles, motorcycles, aircraft, and other motor miniatures. JEP cars traditionally carried a trademark on the radiator of the particular vehicle replicated.

    John Hill & Co.(Johillco) London, England 
    1900 - 1960 
    Founder: Wood (first name unknown), former Britains` employee. 
    Specialty: Primarily 54mm hollowcast toy soldiers in Britains` tradition, but in most cases lacking the quality and refinement of the latter. Never really recovered following the destruction of its Tottenham factory in the London blitz, Johillco closed its doors in 1960.

    Jones & Bixler, Co. Freemansburg, Pennsylvania 
    1899 - 1914 
    Founder: Charles A. Jones and Louis S. Bixler 
    Specialty: "Red Devil Line" of cast-iron auto toys (introduced in 1903, when J & B became part of National Novelty Corp.). From 1909-1913, J & B and Kenton Hardware (which also became part of National Novelty toy trust) produced toys that were indistinguishable from each other.

    Jones (Metal Art Miniatures Co.) Chicago, Illinois 
    1925 - 1941 
    Founder: J. Edwards Jones 
    Specialty: 3 1/4 inch military miniatures; primarily a dimestore line.

    Judd Mfg. Co. Wallingford, Connecticut 
    1830 - ? 
    Other names: Originally known as H.L. Judd Co. when founded in 1830 in New Britain; changed name to M. Judd & Sons in 1855; Judd Mfg. In 1870. 
    Founder: Morton Judd 
    Specialty: Cast-iron mechanical banks, including "Peg-Leg Beggar," "Ticket Collector," and "Standing Giant."

    Jumeau Paris and Montreil-sous-Bois, France 
    1842 - 1899 
    Founder: Emile Jumeau 
    Specialty: Bisque head, composition body dolls, including exquisite be`be`.